Spanish Past Tense Verbs – How to Conjugate the Present Perfect Tense

The present perfect tense is used to describe actions and events that started in the past and that are still continuing in the present. Let’s take a look at how this tense is conjugated.

To Have (Present tense) plus Past Participle

Take a look at how this tense is used in the English language:

Mike has played well this season.

In this instance, the verb “has played” is conjugated in the present perfect tense. That’s because it illustrates an action or event that began in the past. But it also illustrates an action or event that is continuing in the present. In other words, “this season” is not over.

You will also find that this tense s used to express an action that has commenced in the past but does not refer to a specific or concrete time. To illustrate, let’s take another look at an example using this tense.

Roberto ha estudiado muy poco.

(Robert has studied very little. )

In the above phrase, the English verb “has studied” is in the present perfect to indicate that Robert studied in the past. But it is also implied that a specific and concrete time as to when this has occurred has not been determined. To increase your understanding of this tense, let’s take a look at the present tense forms of the verb “haber” which is used to form the present perfect tense:

Yo he (I have) nosotros hemos (we have)

tú has (you have) ellos han (they have)

él ha (he has) ellas han (they have)

Ella ha (she has) ustedes han (you have)

Usted ha (you have)

However, keep in mind that in addition to the verb “haber” conjugated in the present tense, you will also need to include the past participle of the target verb to form the present perfect in Spanish.

How to Avoid the Pain of Negotiating Real Estate Commissions

If you’re a home seller doing your homework, you will discover that the largest home selling expense you will have is the commission.

The cost will probably shock you!

The good news is that all commissions are negotiable.

But have you ever tried to negotiate a commission with an agent?

Go ahead. Try it.

Here are some of the responses you’ll get:


“You get what you pay for”

“If an agent can’t negotiate their own commission then how can they negotiate for you?

“If you negotiate a lower commission, then the agent has no incentive to work”

“Paying a lower commission is penny wise and pound foolish.”

And there are at least a dozen more things a real estate agent might say to discourage you from negotiating a lower commission.

You see, traditional brokers have trained their agents to give these responses to home sellers who want to negotiate the commission. Agents take classes and read books to learn how to defend their commission.

Now, there’s a very good reason agents give home sellers a hard time about a commission reduction. And it has nothing to do with any truth behind their statements.

Truth be told, most agents who work for large brokerage companies simply DO NOT have the authority to negotiate the commission.

Here’s why…

Although commissions are by law negotiable and are not fixed, real estate companies are allowed to set the commission rate for their own companies. Any agent working for the company must adhere to the commission plan set by their broker.

In order for a real estate agent to charge anything less than the commission rate set by the broker, they would have to have their broker’s permission AND the circumstances would have to be extraordinary.


So, how do you go around this problem and avoid the pain of negotiating with a real estate agent?


Seek out an independent broker. An independent broker is an individual who runs and operates their own real estate company.

Independent brokers often run small companies without the high overhead associated with running a large company. Business 101 tells us that a company must charge fees that are high enough to cover their overhead costs plus enough to make a profit. High overhead = high fees.

Here’s another reason…

Independent real estate brokers have the authority and ability to act as both the broker and the listing agent. In essence, they eliminate the need to allocate a part of the commission to the listing agent. It’s like buying your real estate services wholesale.

Because of this, independent brokers have more flexibility with the fees they charge and are able to tailor their fees to suit your needs.

You can avoid the pain of trying to negotiate a commission with a traditional real estate agent by simply choosing to do business with a smaller company owned and operated by an independent real estate broker.

Using Presentation Folders to Promote Your Business

The clothes maketh the man, so goes a well-known saying. Remember the Emperor’s clothes? That’s a situation that you do not want to have. What am I talking about? You must be wondering. I am taking about presentation, and how important this aspect is to any business. In this short post, we’re going to look at presentation folders and their benefits to a business.

A presentation folder is simply a folded piece of thick paper made out of tough material that is used to hold business brochures, cards, flyers and information leaflets. These are vital for any businesses that want to be taken seriously. For a business that wants to branch out and make a lasting impact, good presentation and a great first impression is what will hold the attention of prospective customers.

People are always attending trade fairs, seminars and making office calls to check out the competition, shop around before making a decision on which business to go with and to simply have a feel of what options there are in a certain industry sector. Websites are great for divulging information about products and services that your typical startup offers, but nothing makes a more colorful and lasting impact better than presentation folders.

These can be carried from one point to another, and hold a lot of information at any given time. Perhaps a client just visited your offices and is in a hurry to leave for their next appointment. Before launching into a hurried and boring summary of what your business can do for them, you can hand them a glossy presentation folder and ask them to have a look at it as it contains all the information that they would need. At their own leisure, they can go over the various documents, cards and resumes contained in the presentation folders, and then call your organization up when they are good and ready to do business or seek your services.

Folders are manufactured in bulk by printing presses and thanks to today’s advances in the printing sectors, presentation folders can have various effects added to them to give them that extra pizzazz and help them stand out of the crowd. A matte or gloss finish and embossed lettering will have your clients clamoring for your presentation folders, and even cherish them as part of their important business ensemble, to be displayed proudly on their desks. These days, presentation folders can be printed online, which makes the process convenient and hassle-free. There are various sites that carry out the process for you, and all you have to do is make an order with the click of a button to get things rolling. No more making expensive and time-consuming trips to the printer, and scheduling appointments when your valuable time could be spent carrying out other income-generating activities for your business.

Folders are manufactured at an affordable price if they are printed in bulk. This is what you should look into as it will save you quite a bit of your money and slash your printing budget for months to come. Presentation folders convey a sense of unity and purpose, and show clients that you have faith and pride in your business. People like beautiful things – this is a universal thing, and we as human beings tend to remember and come back to things that impacted us strongly from the beginning. Presentation folders that have bold colors and are embossed with, say, gold lettering, will provide the desired effect to your clients, who will soak in all the information contained in the package and possibly be won over by the fact that you as a company have decided to put some extra effort and thought into effective and pivotal presentation. Folders might very well be the thing that spells success for your company and products.